November 29, 2012

Goodbye, Peaceable Kingdom—the Conservative government is re-spinning Canada as a Warrior Nation in which a muscular military is the ultimate expression of national identity.

An argument can be made that John Buchan is the Leonard Zelig of Canadian history. At least that is the impression one gets from reading the new book Warrior Nation: Rebranding Canada in an Age of Anxiety (Between the Lines). Zelig is the chameleon-like title character in the Woody Allen movie who keeps popping up at momentous historical events, and Buchan too seems to have a knack for ubiquity. As the co-authors of Warrior Nation, Ian McKay and Jamie Swift, point out, Buchan supervised a British concentration camp in South Africa during the Boer War, Canada’s first foreign war; then he was a chief propagandist for the Allied efforts during World War I; then he served as governor general of Canada from 1935 to 1940 (when he founded the Governor General’s Literary Awards); and then, most recently, he appears in the Harper government’s revised citizenship guide, Discover Canada. In this latest incarnation, Buchan—or 1st Baron Tweedsmuir, as he was known—is shown in full Imaginary Indian getup wearing a First Nations feather headdress and robe. The guide includes a quote from a speech Buchan made in 1937 extolling the virtues of a multicultural society in which immigrant groups retain their “special loyalties and traditions” while at the same time contributing to “the national character.”

As McKay and Swift point out, however, Buchan is not the role model for a multicultural Canada that the government wishes he were. In his many works of popular fiction—Buchan wrote The Thirty-Nine Steps and Prester John, along with other swashbuckling potboilers—he reveals himself to be an advocate of the White Man’s Burden school of imperial outreach. In his view, Blacks and Asians were “lesser breeds without the law” who needed the wise governance of what he called “white man’s democracy” to deliver the benefits of civilization. Oops. It looks as though in its enthusiasm for re-emphasizing Canada’s historical ties to Great Britain, the Conservative government has elevated an apologist for racist imperialism to our pantheon of national heroes.

Discover Canada is a seminal document for McKay and Swift. They call it a beginner’s guide to the Warrior Nation in which the history of Canada has become essentially the story of wars, fought and won. “Of thirty images in the section on ‘Canada’s History’,” they write, “twenty depict plainly military events or figures.” What’s more, “the images of war are profoundly romantic, cleaned-up Victorian images of battle reminiscent of the Boy’s Own Annual. No blood, refugees, or bombed-out cities in sight. Going to war looks like a lot of fun.” Meanwhile, mention of peacekeeping, which used to define our role in the world, is reduced to a half sentence.

McKay and Swift are not the only historians who have taken exception to the contents of Discover Canada. The appearance of the guide sparked a bit of a “history war” in which many critics complained that the primer gives a distorted view of the country’s past, emphasizing its military and monarchical heritage while ignoring the various struggles for social justice. (“The Liberals had medicare and the Canadian Pension Plan,” explains one senior Conservative strategist quoted by McKay and Swift, “and we needed to have our brand on something. We chose the military and the RCMP…”) Last year two of these critics, the Manitoba historians Esyllt Jones and Adele Perry, even published their own alternative manual, People’s Citizenship Guide: A Response to Conservative Canada (Arbeiter Ring Publishing), a French-language edition of which is being published in fall 2012. Still, McKay and Swift are the first to mount a sustained critique of the Conservative government’s attempts to revise the country’s history and rebrand Canada as a “Warrior Nation.”

Until recently it may not have occurred to many Canadians that Warrior was one of the images we had of ourselves. Of course Canadian soldiers fought in two world wars and Korea and did themselves proud. But they were simply citizens who took up arms in moments of crisis and returned to their normal lives when the crisis was over. In common with other members of my boomer generation, whenever I thought of Canadian soldiers, which I didn’t very often, I thought of blue helmets and peacekeeping. It was the Americans who militarized their public events with martial displays of weapons and warfare; Canadians lived in the Peaceable Kingdom.

McKay and Swift believe that those days are over. Prime Minister Harper, they argue, wants to move the image of the soldier to the centre of the Canadian story. He, along with a select group of military leaders and right-wing scholars, wish us to understand that Canadians are warriors now and always have been. The Afghanistan adventure is not some break with the past, and possibly a horrible mistake, but a continuation of our heroic military traditions, traditions that must be rescued from the neglect and distortions of left-wing peaceniks. As part of this project, previous wars are memorialized as noble crusades in defence of civilization rather than the messy imperial conflicts that McKay and Swift believe them to have been. World War I, for example, in which more than sixty thousand Canadians died, along with fifteen million others around the world, “was never a war for democracy, freedom, or ‘Canada’, but a war fought between empires,” they write. The glorification of Vimy Ridge as the heroic battle where Canada found its nationhood is part of this militarization of the Canadian past. “Rather than remember the Great War as a complex historical event,” the authors complain, “we are enjoined to commemorate it as Canada’s finest hour.” And so it goes for all the other martial episodes in our history right down to our present intervention in Afghanistan.

Hand in hand with the glorification of war is the denigration of peace, or at least peacekeeping. During the Cold War, Canadian soldiers took part in more UN peacekeeping missions than any other country. We thought that peacekeeping was the best way for a middle power like Canada to make a contribution to stability in the world. But times have changed. For the new warriors, peacekeeping is wimp’s work, “a poor substitute for real wars in which real men could prove themselves against evil enemies.” They wish us to play a more muscular role internationally, and to this end they wish to inflate our past military accomplishments.

Revisioning Canada as “Warrior Nation” requires a fair bit of spin-doctoring. The Conservatives have lately been conscripting all sorts of public events into the campaign to revise the national narrative. We now see uniformed soldiers appearing at citizenship ceremonies, hockey games given over to supporting our troops, roadways renamed as “highways of heroes” and, most provocatively, history being rewritten as a series of battlefield successes, this year’s $28-million celebration of the War of 1812 being a case in point. McKay and Swift believe that when Canadians elected a Conservative government they got a lot more than a new tenant at 24 Sussex Drive. They also got a regime that is intent on reinterpreting Canadian history to reflect its own ideology. Many of the characteristics we used to think defined us—socialized medicine, bilingualism, the welfare state, public broadcasting, global citizenship—are being replaced by other notions of Canadianness, most notably, argue McKay and Swift, an inflated role for the military. “Nations are narrations,” the culture theorist Edward Said once wrote. The stories we tell ourselves form the national narrative—in the parlance of modern marketing, the national brand. What McKay and Swift see happening, under the guise of patriotism and a get-tough approach to security, is a major rebranding of what it means to be Canadian.


November 29, 2012

Comments (4)

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A few years ago, I noticed a bus shelter poster showing a soldier with the banner: FIGHT! across the top - a recruiting ad for the Dep't of Defense it turned out.

I wrote a letter asking the government to fill me in on the change of plans since I (and all my friends and neighbours) were still under the impression that we were a peace-keeping nation, and posted it to Harper, Mackay and my MP. I got back a boiler plate response from Mackay's office saying I was mistaken, that we were a fighting nation and to get used to it.

I also remarked to them at the time and have since emailed again (no response from anyone) about the huge presence of armed forces at the 2011 Calgary Stampede parade and the "fun and games with the armed forces" event staged in a public square beside City Hall in Toronto during the Grey Cup this year. They are marketing war to us as if it were a game! So, so scary, to me. We have got to express our concern in a manner they take seriously. So thank you for this but I am afraid it is just preaching to the converted.

Tannis Baker more than 1 years ago

rebranding the warrior concept

I agree we are a warrior nation. Warriors of our times. In the above conflicts we supported the standard of our bloody, colonial history and were ecceptional. As founding nations in the development of Peace Keeping we reinvented the warrior in Peace keeping adventures as described in The Medac Pocket, in the midst of one the most distressing modern conflicts we stepped between the battle lines and prevented, for a moment in time, the progress of that auful conflict. Now we are faced with a rebranding of our culture of tolerance. I believe we are faced with a struggle within our own culture. The ideology of our current national government is a gload to spur us to pursue the innovative independant social ideals that formed our self concept if not our political system. It's time for Canada to progress down the idealistic avenue we hold as our standard. A warrior nation? A warrior reflects the highest ideals of ones time not archaic feudalism of our current political structure. The ramparts are not the bloody battlefierld but the highest and best of our expressive culture. It's time to wrest control from the bean counters and create anew our own house in the progressive perspective of the priviledge we have developed within.

Riun Blackwell more than 1 years ago


Here in the Okanagan, the history centred around 1812 arrived not from the East, via Canada, but from the south, via Washington Territory, after a fifty year cross continent delay as it made its way through a series of extreme pressures on native american culture south of the 49th parallel. This south to north process has continued to the present. Canada here is an 1858 border that separates this land from its history, causing all kinds of development opportunities, certainly, but closing down many others, without, however, erasing the deep north-south connection. Whatever else it is, it sure isn't Mr. Harper's warrior nation. As far as that goes, there's an old archival photo of women picking apples in Kelowna in 1915, which appears to show the beauty of the old colonial ideal, when the English middle class packed up to come to their image of paradise. However, the reason the women are picking the apples is that their men are all dead in France. Warrior nation? More like war victim, I'd say. The very notion of Canada is a story, and one that doesn't fit the facts on the ground very well. It tells less of the story than there is to tell and leaves a large amount of cultural and historical material invisible. It is, in other words, not a very good story. The peacekeeping story fit the facts better. After all, this place was a socialist paradise for a long time. Between the two World Wars Penticton was even a kind of German colony, populated largely by communists and their culture, whose comrades were all in Buchenwald back in Germany. (The local Nazi regional administrator, self-appointed, was in Summerland, under watch by the RCMP.) When post WWII German refugees showed up here, they met not so much Canada as a Germany that had been murdered back home. When my father showed up, he was virtually given an orchard, to continue its peace-making potential, by an army major who left it to return to the new peacekeeping army. That's not a warrior nation story. The warrior story only applies to one ethnic group, with one history, although it does have a kind of logic: people who identify with that particular Canadian narrative are the people to whom that narrative applies. George Ryga would, however, turn over in his grave, as would old fruitgrowers such as John Bibby, who grew apples on Languedoc Road in Naramata from 1937 to 1948, most of that time as part of the war effort, yet in solidarity not with Canadian soldiers so much as with his comrades in Russia. The Okanagan has historically been a dynamic culture, seeing itself as an independent world culture, with American, Aboriginal, European, and Canadian cultural threads, which are not separable into a pure Canadian one without silencing 3/4 of what it is.

Harold Rhenisch more than 1 years ago

Warrior Nation

Peace, Prosperity and Writers,
War, Austerity and Fighters

Andrew Phillips more than 1 years ago